Selected Key References

  1. Recognize the characteristics of the most common types of pain: nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic , and describe basic pain mechanisms
  • Kennedy JD. Neuropathic pain: molecular complexity underlies continuing unmet medical need. J Med Chem 2007;50:2547-2556.
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  • Gureje O. Psychiatric aspects of pain. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2007;20:42-46.
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  1. Perform a comprehensive (multidimensional) pain assessment and establish a diagnosis (or pain diagnoses if more than one type of pain exists).
  • De C Williams A, Davies HTO, Chadury Y. Simple pain rating scales hide complex idiosyncratic meanings. Pain 2000;85:457-463.
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  1. Collaborate effectively as a member of the interdisciplinary team and engage the patient in an appropriate, balanced, goal-oriented, multimodal treatment plan
  • Gallagher RM. Rational integration of pharmacologic, behavioral, and rehabilitation strategies in the treatment of chronic pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84(3(Suppl):S64-S76.
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  • Hibbard JH. Engaging health care consumers to improve the quality of care. Med Care 2003;41(1 Suppl):161-170.
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  • Hewson MG, Kindy PJ, Van Kirk J, Gennis VA, Day RP. Strategies for managing uncertainty and complexity. J Gen Intern Med 1996;11(8):481-485.
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  1. Provide evidence-based, rational and safe pain management
  • Dwokin RH, O'Connor AB, Backonja M, et al. Pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: evidence-based recommendations. Pain 2007;132:237-251.
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  • Pyati S, Gan TJ. Perioperative pain management. CNS Drugs 2007;21(3):185-211.
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  1. Refer patients to specialty care when appropriate
  • Gallagher RM. Rational integration of pharmacologic, behavioral, and rehabilitation strategies in the treatment of chronic pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005;84(3(Suppl):S64-S76.
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  • Stanos SP, McLean J, Rader L. Physical medicine rehabilitation approach to pain. Anesth Clinics 2007;25:721-759.
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  1. Describe the essential elements of responsible opioid prescribing2-Oct-09
  • Belgrade MJ, Schamber C, Lindgren BR. The DIRE score: predicting outcomes of opioid prescribing for chronic pain. The Journal of Pain 2006;7(9):671-681.
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  • Swegle JM, Logemann C. Management of opioid-induced side effects. American Family Physician 2006;74(8):1347-1354.
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  • Passik SD, Kirsch KL, Whitcomb L, et al. A new tool to assess and document pain outcomes in chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy. Clinical Therapeutics 2004;26(4):552-561.
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  • Gallagher RM, Rosenthal LJ. Chronic pain and opiates: balancing pain control and risks in long-term opioid treatment. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89(3 Suppl 1):S77-82.
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  • Chou R, Fanciullo GJ, Fine PG et al. Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain. J Pain 2009; 10 (3): 113-130.
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