Any professional should refer a patient to a specialist or other provider when he/she has reached the limits of comfort or competence, or when patients desire referral. This session addresses specific situations where referral should be considered.

  • Active suicidal ideation or significant untreated affective disorder - psychiatric and psychological referral
  • Active addictive disorder, or aberrant drug-related behavior when an addiction diagnosis is uncertain - addiction medicine referral
  • When interventional (injection) approaches are considered for diagnosis or treatment - referral to interventional pain specialist
  • Suspected collagen-vascular disorder or other inflammatory/arthritic process - rheumatology referral
  • Suspected active/progressive neurologic disease - neurology referral.